Program Theory

We begin with a very simple model of computation. A computer has a memory, and we can
observe its contents, or state. Our input to a computation is to provide an initial state, or prestate.
After a time, the output from the computation is the final state, or poststate. Although the memory
contents may physically be a string of bits, we can consider it to be a string of any items; we only
need to group the bits and view them through a code. A state σ (sigma) may, for example, be
given by
σ = –2; 15; “A”; 3.14
The indexes of the items in a state are usually called “addresses”. The bunch of possible states is
called the state space. For example, the state space might be
int; (0,..20); char; rat
If the memory is in state σ , then the items in memory are σ0 , σ1 , σ2 , and so on. Instead of
using addresses, we find it much more convenient to refer to items in memory by distinct names
such as i , n , c , and x . Names that are used to refer to items in the state are called state variables.
We must always say what the state variables are and what their domains are, but we do not bother to
say which address a state variable corresponds to. Formally, there is a function address to say
where each state variable is. For example,
x = σaddress “x”
A state is then an assignment of values to state variables.
Our example state space in the previous paragraph is infinite, and this is unrealistic; any physical
memory is finite. We allow this deviation from reality as a simplification; the theory of integers is
simpler than the theory of integers modulo 232 , and the theory of rational numbers is much
simpler than the theory of 32-bit floating-point numbers. In the design of any theory we must
decide which aspects of the world to consider and which to leave to other theories. We are free to
develop and use more complicated theories when necessary, but we will have difficulties enough
without considering the finite limitations of a physical memory.

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Video Games

Video games have been around since the early 1970s.
The first commercial arcade video game,Computer Space by Nutting Associates, was introduced in 1971. In 1972, Atari introduced Pong to the arcades.
An interesting item to note is that Atari was formed by Nolan Bushnell, the man who developed Computer Space In October 1958, Physicist William Higinbotham created what is thought to be thefirst video game.
It was a very simple tennis game, similar to the classic 1970s video game Pong, and it was quite a hit at a Brookhaven National Laboratory open house. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats.
The earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, and issued on 14 December 1948, as U.S. Patent 2455992.
Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen.
The electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others.
Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large, typically coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available.
The third generation of consoles, which were 8-bit units, emerged from 1983 to 1995.
The fourth generation of consoles, which were 16-bit models, emerged from 1987 to 1999.
The 1990s saw the resurgence and decline of arcades, the transition to 3D video games, improved handheld games, and PC gaming.
The fifth generation of consoles, which were 32 and 64-bit units, was from 1993 to 2006. During this era, mobile phone gaming emerged. During the 2000s, the sixth generation of consoles emerged (1998–2013).
During this period, online gaming and mobile games became major aspects of gaming culture. The seventh generation of consoles was from 2005 to 2012.
This era was marked by huge development budgets for some games, with some having cinematic graphics; the launch of the top-selling Wii console, in which the user could control the game actions with real-life movement of the controller; the rise of casual PC games marketed to non-gamers;
and the emergence of cloud computing in video games.
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